Welcome - Bienvenue
This is a greeting in Canada’s two official languages of English and French. How did Canada get here – Let’s start with a brief history.
Our first settlers from overseas were Vikings around 1000AC, but their impact was brief. Once the Americans were ” discovered” in 1492, shortly afterwards, the first recorded visit was John Cabot. it is unclear where the actual landing area was, but it is believed to be Newfoundland. He claimed the land for England. the French would come shortly after and establish permanent settlements mainly in Quebec. Immigration was encouraged to help build the country which became incorporated in 1867. many European people came here to have a better life. This idea of improving ourselves continues nowadays with our current immigration. The completion of the transcontinental railway in the late 1880s not only helped bring people and goods across the country but also helped unite us as a nation.
Canada has been described as the land from “the sea to sea to sea”. Our borders are the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. Our only land border is with the USA. The story of how we became a nation, is more recent than most countries.
The first inhabitants came to the North American continent on a land bridge, from Siberia to Alaska, over 10,000 years ago. They were hunter-gatherers and are now called indigenous people.
Canadian Education System
The Canadian education system is publicly funded and administered by each province and territory. While there are some variations among the different jurisdictions, there are some general features that are common across the country.
In Canada, education is compulsory up to a certain age, which varies by province or territory. Generally, children start elementary school at age five or six, attend middle or junior high school from grades six to eight or nine, and then move on to high school, which usually lasts four years.
After high school, students can choose to continue their education by attending a university, college, or vocational school. In Canada, universities offer undergraduate and graduate degree programs, while colleges and vocational schools offer diploma and certificate programs.
The Canadian education system is known for its high standards and excellent reputation. It emphasizes critical thinking, creativity, and hands-on learning, and is designed to prepare students for success in the workforce or in further academic study.
Canada has a diverse climate due to its vast geography and size, with weather conditions varying greatly depending on the region and season. Generally, the country experiences four distinct seasons – winter, spring, summer, and fall – each with its own unique weather patterns and temperatures.
In the northern parts of Canada, particularly in the Arctic regions, temperatures can drop to extremely cold levels, with some areas experiencing temperatures below -40°C (-40°F) during the winter months. In contrast, the southern regions of Canada generally have milder winters with temperatures ranging between -5°C (23°F) and 0°C (32°F).
During the summer months, temperatures in most parts of Canada range from 20°C (68°F) to 30°C (86°F), with some regions experiencing hotter temperatures. However, the coastal regions of British Columbia and the Atlantic provinces tend to have cooler summers.
Precipitation also varies widely across Canada, with some regions experiencing high amounts of rainfall or snowfall, while others experience relatively dry conditions. Coastal regions typically have higher levels of precipitation than inland regions.
Overall, Canada’s weather can be unpredictable and sometimes harsh, particularly in the winter months. However, the country’s diverse climate also provides opportunities for a variety of outdoor activities throughout the year.
Canada is a diverse country with a rich and unique culture that has been shaped by a variety of influences, including its Indigenous peoples, European colonizers, and immigrants from around the world. Here are some key elements of Canadian culture:
Indigenous Culture: Canada’s Indigenous peoples have a rich and diverse culture that is deeply rooted in their connection to the land. Indigenous art, music, dance, storytelling, and spiritual practices have all had a significant impact on Canadian culture.
Bilingualism: Canada is a bilingual country, with English and French as its official languages. This has contributed to a unique cultural blend, with both English and French influences evident in Canadian art, cuisine, music, and literature.
Multiculturalism: Canada is also known for its multiculturalism, with people from around the world living together in harmony. This has led to a rich tapestry of cultures and traditions that are celebrated throughout the country.
Food: Canadian cuisine is diverse, with influences from Indigenous, French, British, and other cultures. Some popular Canadian dishes include poutine (french fries topped with cheese curds and gravy), maple syrup, and butter tarts.
- Arts and Entertainment: Canada has a thriving arts and entertainment industry, with many talented artists, musicians, writers, and filmmakers. Some famous Canadian cultural exports include musicians like Celine Dion and Drake, writers like Margaret Atwood and Alice Munro, and films like “The Sweet Hereafter” and “C.R.A.Z.Y.”
- Sports: Canada is known for its love of hockey, but other sports like basketball, baseball, and football are also popular. The country has also hosted several international sporting events, including the Olympics.
Overall, Canada’s culture is a unique and vibrant blend of influences from around the world, shaped by its history, geography, and diverse population.
The Canadian Government system is a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. It is based on the principles of democracy, the rule of law, and respect for individual rights and freedoms.
The federal government is composed of three branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
The legislative branch is composed of the House of Commons and the Senate. The House of Commons is made up of elected representatives, while the Senate is made up of appointed members. Together, these two chambers of Parliament are responsible for passing laws and making decisions on behalf of the Canadian people.
The executive branch is composed of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is responsible for selecting and leading the Cabinet, which is made up of Ministers who oversee different areas of government. The executive branch is responsible for implementing laws and policies.
The judicial branch is composed of the courts, including the Supreme Court of Canada. The courts are responsible for interpreting and applying the law, and ensuring that the rights and freedoms of individuals are protected.
Canada is also divided into provinces and territories, each with its own government and legislative assembly. The provincial and territorial governments have jurisdiction over a wide range of areas, including healthcare, education, and natural resources.
The Canadian Government system is designed to ensure that power is distributed among different branches of government and levels of government, in order to prevent any one person or group from having too much control. This helps to promote democracy, accountability, and transparency in the government.